The complications of elective orthodontic treatment are numerous. Patients need to be aware, in advance, of possible problems including resorption, instability, caries, recession and failure to deliver optimal tooth position. The investment of time and resources by all concerned is considerable and if there are adverse outcomes these can be biologically costly in the longer term. A frank and full discussion of the possible problems is necessary following the findings of Montgomery vs. Lanarkshire in 2015. 

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