Peri-implant diseases affecting the surrounding structures of endosseous dental implants include peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. The prevalence of peri-implantitis ranges between 15% and 20% after 10 y, highlighting the major challenge in clinical practice in the rehabilitation of dental implant patients. The widespread nature of peri-implant bone loss poses difficulties in the management of biological complications affecting the long-term success of osseointegrated implant reconstructions. Metal and titanium particles have been detected in peri-implant supporting tissues. However, it remains unclear what mechanisms could be responsible for the elicitation of particle and ion release and whether these released implant-associated materials have a local and/or systemic impact on the peri-implant soft and hard tissues. Metal particle release as a potential etiologic factor has been intensively studied in the field of orthopedics and is known to provoke aseptic loosening around arthroplasties and is associated with implant failures. In dental medicine, emerging information about metal/titanium particle release suggests that the potential impact of biomaterials at the abutment or bone interfaces may have an influence on the pathogenesis of peri-implant bone loss. This mini-review highlights current evidence of metal particle release around dental implants and future areas for research.
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