This article will provide an overview of the rationale behind taking a contemporary approach to obturation of the root canal system. It will outline a broad range of obturation materials including those traditionally used and newer, advanced ones that are now available that have active physical and biological properties. Obturation techniques will be described in detail, including advice for those difficult cases such as managing obturation of a canal with a wide open apex. Assessment of obturation will also be discussed, considering those factors which affect outcome of root canal treatment.

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