Three clinical cases involving teeth with open apices and apical periodontitis were treated using different protocols. The first case was managed with intracanal calcium hydroxide paste for 12 months before obturation with gutta-percha and sealer. In the second case, an apical plug of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was used before obturation with gutta-percha and sealer and treatment was completed during 2 appointments. In the third case, the tooth, which had a divergent root canal system, was completely obturated with MTA and treatment was also completed over 2 appointments. In all 3 cases, signs of bone healing were observed after treatment.

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Treatment Options for Teeth with Open Apices and Apical Periodontitis Raldi et al 2009