Fifty-seven teeth with open apices on 50 patients referred for root canal treatment received an apexification procedure in one appointment with
MTA by the same operator. Patients were recalled at 6 months, 12 months and every year thereafter. Blind to the treatment record, two examiners assessed the pre-treatment, post-treatment and control radiographs
of the study patients in a dark room using a magnifier.

Each apex visible on the radiographs was scored with the periapical index (PAI), and the size of the apical lesion was measured. The presence of an apical bridge was also noted. Kappa-Cohen test was used for examiners calibration. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of apical healing.