When and how to increase the occlusal vertical dimension? Its one of those questions that pops up constantly. The actual process can be applied to the majority of treatments we provide in restorative dentistry and prosthodontics. What may be quite daunting is the effect that changes we instigate have on the overall occlusal scheme and whether or not the patient can tolerate these changes or indeed if the changes have any adverse effects on the dentition. This review contains a vast majority of the classical and contemporary literature relating to the subject and as such is a valuable bit of work.